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South Carolina v. Baker, 7-1 U.S. Supreme Court decision, upheld the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act (TEFRA) of 1982, which removed the federal…

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Tax Reform Act, passed by the Congress, reduced ‘tax expenditure’ subsidies for state and local governments by placing some limits on tax-exempt state and…

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Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority, a 5-4 U.S. Supreme Court ruling, held that the commerce clause permits application of the U.S. Fair…

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Michigan v. Long, a 6-3 U.S. Supreme Court ruling, held that state high-court rulings that increase rights protections above standards set by the U.S.…

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New Federalism, proclaimed by President Ronald Reagan, sought to reduce the size of the U.S. government, restore state powers, and curtail direct federal relations…

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Department of Education was enacted by the Congress as a Cabinet department in the U.S. government during Democratic President Jimmy Carter’s administration over opposition…

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National League of Cities v. Usery, a 5-4 U.S. Supreme Court ruling, held that the Tenth Amendment bars application of the 1974 amendments to…

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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, enacted by the Congress, is a costly program for schools that emphasizes individualized education programs (IEPs), free and appropriate…

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Fair Labor Standards Amendments, enacted by the Congress, extended coverage of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 to almost all employees of state…

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Roe v. Wade, a 7-2 U.S. Supreme Court ruling, struck down laws in 30 states that prohibited abortion and in 20 other states that…

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General Revenue Sharing was created by the State and Local Fiscal Assistance Act. It distributed largely unrestricted federal funds to the states and 38,200…

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National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA), the first major federal environmental law, aimed to prevent pollution and environmental damage by setting national environmental-quality objectives and…

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New Federalism, proclaimed by President Richard M. Nixon, aimed mainly at “rationalizing” and decentralizing the federal system by channeling more aid to state and…

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