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Texas v. White, a 5-3 U.S. Supreme Court decision involving state bonds, rejected the South’s compact theory of the U.S. Constitution, holding instead that…

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Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified on July 9, grants citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” while retaining…

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First Civil Rights Act granted citizenship and equal rights to all men in the United States regardless of race or previous condition of servitude…

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Appomattox, Virginia, is the site of Confederate Army general Robert E. Lee’s surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia to Lt. Gen. Ulysses S.…

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Emancipation Proclamation was a wartime executive order issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1 declaring that “all persons held as slaves within any…

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Department of Agriculture was created by President Abraham Lincoln, who called it the “people’s department,” to collect agriculture statistics, conduct research, distribute new varieties…

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The Civil War, which took the lives of some 720,000 Americans, determined the unity of the United States and moved the federal union in…

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South Carolina was the first state to declare secession from the United States on December 20—2.5 months before Abraham Lincoln’s inauguration.

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Dred Scott v. Sandford, a 7-2 U.S. Supreme Court ruling, declared that black residents were not citizens of the United States and that slaves…

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Kansas-Nebraska Act established the Kansas and Nebraska territories and permitted settlers to decide whether to allow or prohibit slavery in either territory. The act…

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Compromise of 1850 was a series of five bills grouped together to deal with the balance between free and slave states in the Congress…

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Prigg v. Pennsylvania, an 8-1 U.S. Supreme Court ruling, overturned a slave-catcher’s conviction under Pennsylvania law for kidnapping a slave. The Court ruled that…

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Charles River Bridge Company v. Warren Bridge Company, a 5-2 U.S. Supreme Court ruling, held that Massachusetts did not violate the Constitution’s contracts clause…

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