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Kentucky Resolution of December 3 declared that when the federal government acts outside the U.S. Constitution’s authority, the states, “being sovereign and independent, have…

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Alien and Sedition Acts, enacted by a Federalist Congress during John Adams’s presidency, prohibited written or spoken criticism of the federal government, made it…

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Fugitive Slave Act codified the fugitive slave clause in Article IV, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution, which required states to return escaped slaves…

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First Bank of the United States, established on February 21 as proposed by the Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, was a depository for…

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Funding Act provided for paying Revolutionary War debts and authorized the federal government to pay the states’ war debts. This was the first federal…

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Ratification of the U.S. Constitution by popularly elected state conventions in each state ensured that the peoples of the states had the final role…

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Constitutional Convention convened in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, between May and September with 55 of 74 pledged delegates from 12 states eventually attending (with Rhode Island…

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Annapolis Convention, formally titled Meeting of Commissioners to Remedy Defects of the Federal Government, was a convention of 12 delegates from five states that…

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Land Ordinance implemented the 1784 ordinance and established a grid survey system to facilitate land purchases by individuals and companies. Land was surveyed into…

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Land Ordinance, enacted on April 23, provided that lands west of the Appalachian Mountains, north of the Ohio River, and East of the Mississippi…

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Articles of Confederation, ratified on February 2 as the first written constitution of the United States of America, established a “perpetual union,” although the…

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Massachusetts Constitution, the first to expressly provide for a separation of powers and ratification by the people, is the world’s oldest written constitution still…

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Articles of Confederation, drafted by a committee of delegates from the 13 states and chaired by John Dickinson, was adopted by the Continental Congress…

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